What's important to understand is that race is especially contrived and unreal. Race is the coalition and grouping together of ethnic groups and it's purpose (ie the reason the white race was invented) is to justify colonialism and create divisions among the working class. The stratification of society into different groups with different levels of material privileges serves to both give pseudoscientific justification to the status quo (europeans* are superior and therefore entitled to the resources of Africa, the Americas, Asia, etc.) and to create antagonistic relationships between workers so as to prevent them from organizing against the wealthy propertied classes. Hell, this was part of the foundations of modern liberalism and can be seen in such classical liberal philosophers like John Locke in the way they used the ~civilized, god-fearing, & proper culture~ of white europeans to justify the enslavement of Africa and the genocide and plunder of indigenous people and their lands. The theft was justified on the idea that God meant for the resources to be used and by Golly those savages just didn't know the value of their own land so what could we do besides take it from them.
*Not east europeans tho, eg Albanians, Poles, Roma, Armenians, Turks, Arabs, Moors, Persians, Kurds, etc. And maybe sometimes not certain jewish ethnic groups like the Ashkenazim and Serphadim, but thanks to the zionist western-created settler-colonial project of Israel, they largely get to be White Lite™ these days, but we still prefer for them to stay in their own country and keep their filth out of the pure Christian Western countries. Also maaaaaybe sometimes even Mizrahim get to be white-ish. Sometimes. Also, of course, continental borders like "europe" are totally bullshit and made up too. Like, look how far even Germans
But nationalities (or ethnic groups) are different and intimately linked to things like culture, religion, diet, music, language, customs, social networks, attire, etc. There's some history behind the creation of nationalities as well and you can see it in some of the absurd demarcations in african ethnic groups that are heavily exaggerated. There were ethnic groups that were in multiple tribes and borders were very tenuous and ethnic groups much more fuzzy. But capitalism requires the privatization of all things and this means assigned ownership and making borders and fences (see: enclosure movement
). This meant the destruction of the commons, of the public ownership of any spaces. And in colonialism, when this was applied from the outside, you had the absurd and lazy drawing of lines and border. If you look at the continent of Africa, notice how many borders exist in straight lines. This is a product of colonialism and often these borders would go straight thru different tribes and ethnic groups. This, of course, would lead to conflict and war, but who gives a **** about Africa, right? The ****ing **** between Pakistan and India to this day can be traced, in large part, to the ****ed up border creation imposed on South Asia by the British Empire.
Gender, on the other hand, is somewhat different. It is exists withing nations, for instance. Tho most countries these days are multi-ethnic in some capacity, gender still exists in a *kind of* uniform trans-ethnic (trans-ethnic meaning across ethnic lines) capacity. Part of this is due to internal colonies - such as the way the US imported African slaves and subjugated indigenous people. Part of this is due to expansionism - or the way that diferent Kingdoms/Feudal/Tributary societies would conquer other nations and bring them into their empire. And part of this is just cuz of federalism in governments - the alliance of various ethnic groups because of a common mutual interest. So a nation-state is less common these days as there isn't a one-to-one translation between governments and a single nationality or ethnic group.
But gender. Gender has a purpose and it was created with a purpose which is to say it is the stratification of society into dominant & submissive groups for the purposes of upholding patriarchy and organizing reproductive labor as it were. Reproductive in this sense does not refer directly to the process of sexual reproduction, but to the process by which society is maintained and made continuous. It is the process of raising children, educating them, cleaning up and fixing up places before they fall apart, feeding people, caring for people and making sure they have their needs met. Society is able to achieve growth because it produces in excess
of the amount needed to reproduce itself. It creates more than it needs, in other words. This is called surplus value. The organization of production and the power over how surplus value is distributed is what constitutes class and the mode of production in a society. In a capitalist society, capitalists are given control over the distribution of the surplus value produced in society, despite usually having no part in its production whatsoever. But because they have this power, they are able to maintain it by giving portions of the wealth or surplus to people like cops, who protect property and enforce the laws that enable capitalism. Largely, in a sufficiently advanced society, violence becomes secondary to the mere threat of violence and from there rule via manufactured consent and illusory democracy largely suffices. Until things get bad enough that people start saying **** the rules, **** the system, **** your property bullshit, i'm god damn hungry!
Anyway, gender. Gender is the division of society largely into roles for reproduction, often sexual reproduction being a large part. This also serves a large purpose of recreating and maintaining *race* and ethnicity in capitalism. There's also been systems of gender that have been ternary as opposed to binary, which usually referred to having a specific category for the effiminate
. Often this meant doing house work, food preparation and other menial labor while the role of taking care of children was given largely to women. However, with the creation of racial categories and capitalism, the roles for the effeminate genders were often replaced with slaves. "The Help". Wetnurses, maids, etc. All heavily racialized categories now. There was also the judeo-christian missionaries of the west and western patriarchy's role in erasing the culture, religion, nationality, and *systems of gender* of other nationalities in order to subjugate them to the imperialist systems. This is part of the ideological component of genocide (hence what fascists mean when they speak of white genocide). But gender has very complex elements of race and nationality tied into its core and honestly, not enough work has gone into dissecting the history and mechanization of gender's role in enforcing race.
This is where you get the insults of "cuck". Letting the "uncivilized hordes" of black and brown people into your country threatens your race. They say that they will rape your women! Of course, the white nationalists who spout this rhethoric could give half a **** about rape - white men raping women (indeed, even women of color) is fine, it helps keep white women in their place and the sexual conquest of women of color and taking ~exotic~ mistresses is fine too - hell, you might make a beautiful mixed-race baby and improve the inferior nonwhite races, how kind. No, what white nationalists care about is how rape threatens the purity of race. How it threatens their lilly white fragile & gentle aryan virginal women and children, the future of their white nations. Women can only bear so many children and if a white woman is pregnant with a nonwhite child, well, where are the white children going to come from??? So being effiminate often means taking the role reserved for people of color. It almost means betraying whiteness itself. It means eschewing the role of the masculine White Knight who protects women and children from the savages. Among other things. This is why emasculation is so humiliating and degrading for white men - this is why white nationalists call people cucks. You're just letting the black and brown people rape the white women and enact white genocide! Of course, there's no real death here in this genocide. Rather, it's the erasure and slow degeneration of something that white nationalists feel must be preserved and maintained in order to ensure greatness and prosperity for the white nations. The ideas of diversity and multiculturalism only serve to dilute the white race and weaken it, make it ripe for destruction at the hands of the strong barbaric races.