Jump to content


  • Content Count

  • Joined

  • Last visited

  • Days Won


Posts posted by ElementUser

  1. unknown.png


    If you get this error while logging onto HoN, it is because the account was deactivated due to inactivity/suspected that the account was compromised to protect the account (as accounts have been compromised quite often over the last few months). You can make a request here to do get it unlocked: https://support.heroesofnewerth.com/

    We will verify ownership of the account and go on from there. We also strongly advise changing your password ASAP after recovering your account.

    Thank you for your understanding.

    • Like 1
  2. Thread's Content:                                                                                                                                                           

    What is Griefing?

    • Intentionally feeding
    • AFK Abuse / “Avoiding AFK Detection” / “Illogical Refusal to Participate”
    • Ability/Item Abuse
    • Item destruction
    • Item/courier spamming
    • Chat abuse/verbal abuse
    • Stat manipulation
    • Staff impersonation

    Why Was My RAP Ticket Unsuccessful?

    • The Rules of Thumb for Successful Reporting
    • Top 5 Reasons Tickets are Marked Innocent


    What is Griefing?
    Demystifying the Rules of Conduct


    Intentionally Feeding.

    • What is Intentionally Feeding?

    Intentionally Feeding is intentionally dying in a way that does not help the team. This includes willingly putting yourself into situations or positions in which you know you will die and intend to die without accomplishing (or trying to accomplish) a positive goal.

    Examples of Intentionally Feeding

    • Running down the lane to the enemies to die to heroes or tower
    • Intentionally dying to neutrals or Kongor without benefiting the team
    • Claiming to be trying to push yet is recklessly dying repeatedly full well knowing that the result will be death with very little getting accomplished
    • Claiming to be trying to team fight full well knowing your teammates will not be assisting you
    • Intentionally feeding a disconnected ally

    Examples of what is NOT considered Intentionally Feeding

    • Playing poorly
    • Unintentionally dying
    • Finishing the game with a “bad” kill-death ratio
    • Claiming to feed or announcing intention without going through with it
    • Being under leveled and dying easily
    • Disconnecting and being fed by another player controlling your hero
    • Dying to neutrals or Kongor due to miscalculation/mistake
    • Intentionally dying to neutrals or Kongor in order to deny an enemy kill
    • Intentionally dying to neutrals or Kongor in Mid Wars to quickly refresh health/mana
    • Sacrificing yourself for the benefit of the team or teammate (even if unsuccessful)
      -Swapping allied carry with Andromeda to sacrifice self but save ally
      -Diving into a dangerous situation to attempt to get tower kill
      -Initiating a team fight knowing that you will be focused and killed


    AFK Abuse / “Avoiding AFK Detection” / “Illogical Refusal to Participate”

    • What is AFK abuse?

    The AFK detection system is designed to allow players the opportunity to remove allies who have stopped participating, reclaiming gold and items to better help them continue the match. AFK Abuse is the act of no longer participating in the match while simultaneously bypassing AFK detection.

    Examples of AFK Abuse

    • Periodically moving around in or behind fountain to avoid AFK detection
    • Periodically leaving the base without intention to participate or help the team
    • Intentionally damaging self or activating spells/items/abilities to avoid AFK detection
    • Moving around/through trees on the edges of the map
    • Farming continuously without intending to help the team (particularly when base towers/barracks are being pushed)

    Examples of what is NOT considered AFK Abuse

    • Successfully getting kicked by an AFK vote
    • Being flagged as AFK but never kicked
    • Refusing to kick an AFK player, even if that player is a friend
    • Farming continuously with the intentions of helping to win the match
    • Legitimately going AFK but match ends before getting flagged
    • Legitimately going AFK but an ally moves your hero with an ability/item
    • Disconnecting



    Ability/Item Abuse

    • What is Ability/Item Abuse?

    Ability/Item Abuse is using items or spells to intentionally ruin the game or harass an allied player. While such abilities/items may be prevented by toggling the green circle next to a player's portrait, ability/item abuse is still a reportable if used to affect the outcome of the game.
    Inappropriate use of in game utilities, such as mass-spamming mini-map pings, falls under this category.
    Bug exploitation should also be reported under this category.

    Examples of Ability/Item Abuse

    • Willful bug abuse or bug exploitation with the intent of gaining an unfair advantage
    • Using Tablet of Command to intentionally push an ally into the enemy team in an effort to kill said ally
    • Using an ability/item in order to intentionally cancel an ally from channeling a homecoming stone or spell
    • Using an ability/item that disables an ally to intentionally allow an enemy to catch up and get a kill
    • Repeated use of an ability or item outside of combat for the sole purpose of irritating/bothering/harassing that player
    • Using Nymphora's ultimate to intentionally teleport an ally into the enemy team with the intent of getting that ally killed
    • Using Nymphora's ultimate to intentionally teleport an ally into a far corner of the map
    • Using Behemoth's Fissure to intentionally block an ally's path
    • Mass spamming mini-map pings with the intention of annoying/harassing another player
    • Excessively spamming cancel animations on abilities to irritate other players
    • Any other intentionally malicious miss-use of an ability or item

    Examples of what is NOT considered Ability/Item Abuse

    • Unintentional bug abuse or bug exploitation (it can happen by accident, after all)
    • Using an ability/item on an ally that unintentionally has a bad outcome
    • Attempting to save an ally with an ability/item but being unsuccessful
    • Accidentally miss-clicking/targeting an ability/item that negatively affects the team
    • Choosing not to use an ability/item that may benefit an ally
    • Initiating a vote-kick, for any reason, even if it is successful
    • Occasional use of cancel animations to feint or bait the other team into a response

    Credits to @MacroHard for this content.


    Item Destruction

    • What is Item Destruction?

    Item Destruction is the destruction of a team's items with intent to upset others. Destroying one's own logger's hatchet or an enemy's items do not fall under this category.

    Examples of Item Destruction

    • Intentionally dropping any useful item and destroying it
    • Intentionally destroying allied items that may have dropped from a killed courier
    • Dropping an item in such a way that the intent is for the enemy to destroy it
    • Intentionally killing team courier (the courier is a valuable item)
    • Buying items and reselling with the intention to deplete gold
    • Selling items immediately before disconnecting or being kicked with the intent to deny your remaining allies the use of those items
    • Selling items in order to buy something that is clearly less useful in order to upset allies
    • Selling items in order to buy a Codex to troll your team the rest of the match
    • Selling items in order to buy a Doombringer if it is likely you may lose it
    • Stealing an ally's item that was dropped or borrowed
    • Destroying a tablet/rune/powerup to deny it from being used by other members of your team

    Examples of what is NOT considered Item Destruction

    • Destroying small items that may no longer be useful such as Logger's Hatchet or Minor Totems
    • Losing items due to unintentionally getting courier killed
    • Temporarily dropping an item for inventory purposes, then have an enemy unexpectedly show up and destroy that item
    • Destroying a bound eye, even allied one, that is dropped on death
    • Destroying a tablet/rune/powerup to deny it from being used by the other team
    • Selling items, even valuable ones, in order to buy something that is reasonably useful
    • Selling mid-tier items in order to make inventory room for high-tier items
    • Selling an item in order to make room for Token of Life
    • Selling Wingbow for another DPS item when enemy carry has Savage Mace
    • Consuming more of a borrowed item than what the lender intended (extra bottle gulps, for example)



    Item/Courier Spamming

    • What is Item/Courier Spamming?

    Item/Courier Spamming is buying items in mass with the intent to upset teammates or ruin a match.

    Examples of Item/Courier Spamming

    • Buying many Runes of Blight in order to continually destroy trees
    • Buying multiple unnecessary couriers
    • Intentionally placing wards in undesirable locations in order to upset an ally
    • Buying up wards with the intention of never placing them in order to upset an ally
    • Buying items that drop on death with the intention that they will be lost
    • Any other deliberate misuse of gold with the intent to upset an ally or ruin the match

    Examples of what is NOT considered Item/Courier Spamming

    • Spamming or wasting items if the outcome of the match is unquestionably inevitable
    • Buying your own personal courier
    • Buying up all the wards but using them appropriately
    • Accidentally miss-clicking a ward placement such that it is wasted
    • Placing a ward in a potentially beneficial position that other players may not agree with
    • Buying multiples of the same item with the intent of it being useful (more than one Savage Mace, for example)
    • Going for strange or unusual item builds with items
    • Buying a Doombringer but losing it unintentionally




    Chat Abuse/Verbal Abuse

    • What is Chat Abuse/Verbal Abuse?

    Chat Abuse/Verbal abuse is any intentional misuse of the chat interface in order to offend, harass, insult, threaten, or humiliate another player. This includes intentional excessive flooding of the chat in a way that obstructs vision.

    Examples of Chat Abuse/Verbal Abuse

    • Repeatedly flooding the chat with macros that obstruct vision
    • Making repeated personal insults that are not game related
    • Excessively using inappropriate language or name-calling
    • Calling out allied positions or vital strategic information to the enemy team
    • Intentionally and repeatedly bypassing the chat filter by slightly modifying obscenities
    • Real life threats that may be taken seriously
    • Repeated sexist, homophobic, or any other offensive comments
    • Racist comments, in any capacity
    • Discrimination against race, nation of origin, religion, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, or disability
    • Mocking/taunting a player that you successfully reported via RAP
    • Responding back to verbal abuse in equal measure
    • Players verbally abusing one another may both be found innocent or both be found guilty, determined on a case by case basis
    • Play it safe. Do not respond to verbal abuse!

    Examples of what is NOT considered Chat Abuse/Verbal Abuse

    • Verbal abuse over VOIP (microphone) is not review-able and therefore not punishable
      — If the match was streamed/recorded it may be reported if a link to the stream is provided
      --- A senior staff [SGM] member in game under a sub-account may manually suspend if the abuse is witnessed first hand
    • Occasionally using chat macros that do not obstruct vision
    • Consistent whining or negative attitude
    • Infrequent insults on in-game play style
    • Infrequent obscene outbursts
      --- If you truly do not want to read bad language, turn on the chat filter in the interface options
    • Threats to report you for griefing


    Stat Manipulation

    • What is Stat Manipulation?

    Stat Manipulation includes any subversive method of intentionally altering, modifying, manipulating, or influencing match outcome or user rating.
    For the sake of the following descriptions the term “plant” refers to any account that is in collusion with the offending player, whether it be a friend's account, alternate account, sub-account, or bot.

    Stat Manipulation is not an available category on the RAP in-game menu. Such cases should be presented to an SGM directly as they often involve detailed.research above and beyond what is required from most GMs. See the FAQ for how to properly contact an SGM.

    Examples of Stat Manipulation

    • Using a plant on the other team to intentionally alter the outcome of the match or influence user rating
    • Having a plant on your own team to intentionally alter the outcome of the match or influence user rating
    • Conceding for the sole purpose of artificially lowering matchmaking rating
    • Manipulating automatic matchmaking preferences for the purpose of being matched against a specific team

    Examples of what is NOT considered Stat Manipulation

    • Ward spamming/wasting (this may still be against the Rules of Conduct for other reasons; see Item Spamming)
    • Intentionally playing against a friend where both parties earnestly participate
    • Coincidentally being matched against a feeding player that is not in collusion with the suspect
    • Resetting stats or creating of a new account in order to play at the 1500 rating level
    • Taking advantage of an unfavorable situation not deliberately caused by the suspect (such as the enemy team disconnecting)
    • Using unorthodox tactics in order to secure a victory in an otherwise lost match (such as “backdooring”)




    Staff Impersonation

    • What is Staff Impersonation?

    Staff Impersonation is defined as claiming to have the power to suspend an account or expedite its process via privileged relations. Claiming to have connections with and privileges from the GM / Staff team is considered to be Staff Impersonation when used as a threat.

    Examples of Staff Impersonation

    • I will get you banned
    • I work for Frostburn Studios
    • I will get my GM friend to review this
    • Try to log in tomorrow
    • I am admin / GM
    • You're going to get IP banned
    • I will handle your case

    Examples of what is NOT considered Staff Impersonation

    • I will report you (or asking everyone else to do so)
    • What you're doing is a bannable offense
    • I hope the GMs will see the same things I see
    • I hope you get banned



    Why Was My RAP Ticket Unsuccessful?

    Common Mistakes when Reporting


    The Rules of Thumb for Successful Reporting

    • Before reporting a player, ask yourself these questions first. If the answer is “NO” to all of them do not bother reporting:
      ---Were the actions intentionally malicious?
      ---Did the actions potentially change the outcome (who won) the match?
      ---Did the actions damage the statistics of another player?
    • Be as detailed in the description as possible
      ---GMs can often work around incorrect categories or inaccurate time stamps as long as your description is detailed!
    • Try to empathize with the reported player
      ---Did he really intend to grief another player or throw the game?
      ---Or are you simply mad that he played poorly?

    Top 5 Reasons Tickets are Marked Innocent

    1. Not a Violation of Rules of Conduct

      ---Player reported for Intentional Feeding, but deaths are determined to be unintentional
      ---Player is reported for AFK Abuse, but player was legitimately AFK and did not avoid AFK detection
      ---Player is reported for backdooring, inappropriate vote-kick, smurfing, etc

    2. Wrong Player Reported

      ---Teal reported for something Purple does (perhaps their names are similar, or there is confusion who fed the courier)
      ---Blue intentionally feeds Pink, but Pink is reported for taking advantage of that and getting fed

    3. Extremely Vague Report

      ---Player is reported for “griefing” with no other explanation
      ---Player uses wrong reporting category and GM cannot figure out what the offense is
      ---GMs will do their best to find violations even if incorrect category is used as long as the description is detailed.

    4. Wildly Inaccurate Time Stamp

      ---Player reports an incident that happens very late in the game but indicates that it happened in the beginning of the match
      ---GMs will do their best to find violations even if the time indicated is incorrect as long as the description is detailed.

    5. Actions Did Not Change Outcome of the Game

      ---Player is reported for spamming couriers, but it is done as the shrine is being destroyed as a joke
      ---Player is reported for AFK Abuse, but does so while the enemy has mega creeps and there is no chance for a comeback
          No chance for comeback literally means no chance!
          If your allies are still trying to win do not abandon them!



    Most of the people encounter a problem where their inquiry won't go through, that usually appears when/if you don't meet a certain requirement.


    In order to submit a ticket/inquiry to help desk you must fulfil some requirements or else you will get the red bar error and your ticket will not go through.
    Here are those 2 requirements:


    1. Subject must be minimum 3 characters, max 30
    2. Description min 10 characters

    22 minutes ago, Ondis said:

    I know, he has made thousands of holes everywhere. EU is not the creator of HoN. I dont particularly care what he thinks and I disagree with him and especially his predecessor vehemently in most things.  Its my opinion that he dragged down what was a solid game. But he should be highly praised for maintaining it on a limited budget/staff and keeping everyone relatively happy for as long as he did. 

    Basically I think that most of the small changes and adjustemenets, including quality of life upgrades like Behemoth being able to remove his stun are positive. But most design decisions and the vision of the game has generally for me been going in the wrong direction for the past couple of years. 

    We could argue about this but theres no point really. What Im just saying is that I prefer the engine as it is, with its quirkiness and in other aspects responsiveness while some others clearly dont. 

    You can't claim that a direction is "wrong" or "right", objectively. It's what you think is "wrong" or "right", and there is a bias on your side. That is all.

  4. 2 hours ago, Flensbrieost said:

    Alright, I am unable to use my left mouse button outside any UI parts like the shop, left hero portrait, settings menu, inventory, etc. If I try to target any heroes with spells or just selecting them nothing happens. Also I can't bind Alt+r but all other binds work. Do you know what could cause this? 

    I've tried repairing the game, but I am unable to uninstal it somehow since it says the file is not associated with anything. 

    Sounds like a local issue, so it's not worth looking into. 


    Try this: 


  5. 13 minutes ago, Flensbrieost said:

    Hey Elementuser, I am somehow unable to open up my own thread about a bug, what should I do? 

    If it's not obvious already, the chances of addressing a bug at this time is slim to none. You are free to try to report it, but honestly unless it's something gamebreaking, it's best to just not report it at this point of the game's life cycle.

  6. As posted on the Discord server:


    I've queued each server for a restart just now (to resolve a voice chat issue) - you may experience up to an hour's worth of downtime or so of being unable to connect to servers. Exception is the EU servers since it's peak hour - I will queue it up for a restart some time later tonight (perhaps in about 6 hours or so)

  7. It also causes a gamebreaking bug if that was allowed on him. Unfortunately, item usage had to be disabled during Stampede, as the fix for the issue could not be made. 


    However, that is what the new Staff of the Master effect is for. It gives magic immunity throughout the full duration of Stampede. 

  8. Please see this thread for more details on how to get your reports to be successful:

    Copy-pasting what I wrote on Reddit:

    Now that our RAP portal has been finally cleared once again:

    If you want to help HoN be as griefer-free as possible for the rest of its lifetime, please follow the steps outlined in the forum thread.

    I guarantee you that if your report fulfills all of the appropriate criteria in that forum thread, then your report will be looked at. We do have mechanisms to filter out garbage reports (notably, reports with only a single player reporting that offender in a particular match), so it's very important that the steps are followed to minimize the garbage we received. Approximately 60-70% of all reports are actually garbage reports, and our relatively small team cleared out well over 3000 reports within 2 months. Even so, we had to apply stricter rules to make sure that actual griefers were being reported, while minimizing garbage reports.

    Please do your part to make HoN as enjoyable as possible for the legitimate players out there. Thank you!




    37 minutes ago, twoscoopsREE said:

    This method of banning people is honestly outrageous. Let me outline a simple method of manufacturing a fake clip of someone saying something like a racial slur. You'd mute the VOIP slider in the HoN settings. When somebody is speaking, any UI icons would still light up. Then you just play a rule breaking voice clip over the recorded video where the victim is not saying anything offensive, then record over it with OBS again.

    You could literally get anyone banned with this method because there are no means of verifying the authenticity of your audio against anything. The mods can only check that your recorded clip matches against the timestamp of the replay, but they can't hear what was spoken over the Voice Chat. And that's just something any dummy could do, but even better editing could be employed with actual video editing tools.

    Why allow anyone with more than two brain cells to permanently ban whomever they find displeasing? Please tell me the mods don't blindly trust unverified audio recordings that anyone can fabricate. Bans should NEVER be dispensed over something someone could just edit in and pretend it actually happened.


    At that point, if you're asking all those questions, you should just stream on Twitch since VODs can't be edited. 

    The user's RAP history or RAP record will help determine if the voice clip was fabricated or tampered with.

    I will also add that it's difficult to fully fake those audio clips. Whenever someone else speaks over VOIP, the HoN in-game background music and sound effects still play. Most users don't turn both of these off completely, and it's difficult to completely keep those background noises while only selectively blocking out what someone is saying if they are actually turning on their mic and saying something that is perfectly fine & then overwriting just their speech with your fake clip, while ALSO keeping the natural HoN background audio there unscathed. So you are wrong there.


  10. Players are free to use whatever tools they want to provide supporting evidence for VOIP/microphone verbal abuse, e.g. OBS, the Windows 10 Game Bar, etc. We suggest OBS because of its free and open-source nature, as well as how intuitive it is to use for our purposes here.


    How to set up OBS to make your video + audio captures for evidence regarding VOIP/microphone abuse as pain-free as possible:

    1) Download OBS from their official website: https://obsproject.com/

    2) When you open the program you see something that is pretty empty. At the bottom there are several boxes. One of them in called Sources. 
    Click the "+" sign in the Sources box to add sources. You need to add your screen and the audio input that HoN uses, so you can record audio as well as video.
    After the "+" sign, there's a dropdown menu. The relevant sources you need to add have a Screen as an icon and a Speaker as an icon. Add those two (credits to the main thread here: https://forums.heroesofnewerth.com/index.php?/topic/4565-do-you-want-to-report-people-for-chat-abuse-over-the-microphone-check-this-out/

    • If you have sound enabled in HoN, you should see the audio source bar fluctuate and also see the HoN video feed in the capture window of OBS.


    At this point, you can just press "Start Recording" to record all your HoN games and then press "Stop Recording" to avoid having your videos consuming too much disk space.


    What I suggest instead is for you to use the Replay Buffer feature that OBS provides, as you don't need to fill up disk space with large video files.

    The Replay Buffer feature continuously captures whatever footage OBS is capturing for the last X seconds (whatever you configured in the previous step). When pressing a hotkey that saves the replay, it will save the contents of that footage into a video file.

    1) Go to Settings -> Output. You should see a "Recording" section and a "Replay Buffer" section. Tick "Enable Replay Buffer".



    In the second box, configure the maximum replay time to whatever you want. I suggest 120 seconds for the average player, as that should be more than enough.


    2) In the Settings menu again, click on Options, then go to Hotkeys. Scroll down until you see the "Replay Buffer" section. Set the hotkey to whatever you wish to save the last X seconds of whatever OBS captured


    Remember this hotkey.


    3) In the main OBS window near the bottom-right, whenever you are ready to record, click on "Start Replay Buffer":



    Then play HoN as normal. If you encounter someone verbally abusing over the microphone, press the hotkey you assigned to the "Save Replay" functionality of the Replay Buffer.

    After the game, when you are ready to report:

    1) Upload your video as an unlisted video on Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/ . Copy the video URL and keep it handy for the next step.

    2) Report the offender by looking at the Match Stats of the match where the offender was verbally abusive over the microphone. File the report, following all steps in the first post of this thread. Additionally, include the video URL of the VOIP/microphone abuse as extra evidence.

  11. What to do to get successful reports:

    If you want your reports to be successful, do this:

    • Get another player from the same game to report the offender. This drastically increases the chances that your ticket will be looked at (in fact, not following this rule will most likely lead to your report not being read)
    • Include the precise timestamp with the slider (and mention whether it's in-game timer or replay timer)
    • Write a concise and accurate description. The more accurate the report is, the quicker it can be processed.
    • Verbal abuse, racism and discrimination often leads to a permanent ban
      • Other heavy griefing actions with clear intent to ruin the game (e.g., intentional feeding) also often leads to a permanent ban.
      • VOIP abuse will be accepted ONLY with additional evidence.
      • We suggest installing OBS and recording all of your HoN games to retain this evidence: https://obsproject.com/
    • Make sure your offense matches your selected category
    • Reports should be written in English
    • Only report for bannable offenses. Full details can be found here: 


    What NOT to do:

    Doing any of the following can quickly lead to your report to not be considered or looked at:

    • Reporting for just being AFK.
      • This is NOT bannable on its own.
      • You have to be avoiding AFK detection or refusing to participate in critical fights when your team asks you well in advance to be there.
      • Refusing to participate in too many teamfights increases the risk of you getting banned.
      • Writing the description of "AFK" without accurate info of how the player avoids the AFK detection or avoids teamfights excessively will lead to the report being ignored
    • Reporting for just "feeding" in the sense where a player seems to just have a high death count.
      • This is NOT bannable on its own - most of the time, the player is simply playing poorly.
      • We only ban for intentional feeding.
      • Writing the description of "Feeding" without accurate info of how the feeding is intentional will lead to the report being ignored
    • Reporting someone just for leaving a game
      • This is NOT bannable on its own.
      • Exceptions do apply if you see the same person leaving many of your games and have explicit evidence to back that up
    • Reporting with a generic, non-specific description
    • Making a report that is not accurate at all
    • Report's content does not match your selected category
    • Reporting a non-bannable offense
    • "Rage reporting" (yes, this is where many reports end up being garbage)
    • Not doing all of what was mentioned in the "What to do to get successful reports" section
    • Like 2
  12. On 1/23/2022 at 3:05 PM, Ondis said:

    I really dont like the notion of "nudging" players into what developers consider "intended" behaviour in game instead of having them explore the game on their own, creating their own meta. 

    Yeah, his winrate will now be above 50% instead of around 50% but his actual ability to do different things will be diminished 😛

    But its fine, I dont care too much xD and as you know we have so different views on this so just ignore me lol. I know its industry standard nowdays. 

    Some results are too cheese to linger in the game (even if they are incredibly niche), largely because of the consequences & potential to counterplay them. See the incident where in a tournament, players picked heroes with summons to block off a lane to starve a lane out of XP and then mass push a T1 tower (and most of T2) when heroes were only level 3/4 at most & are unable to counterpush properly.

    Or, Devourer's hook displacement of neutral creeps early in the game to manipulate creep waves in a way where other heroes with summons cannot (i.e. hooking ancients to creeps and pulling creep wave to ancients) - again, can't be counterplayed.

    In this case though, it's removing an option that is just bad (see: Soul Reaper's E, Predator's E for jungle restrictions). The same thing was applied to Ra for the same reasons.

    Regardless of whether you agree or not, these changes, when done for the correct reasons, are better for the game than if they are ignored & let players do what you say they should be able to do. We allow many out-of-the-box strategies and in-game mechanics in terms of behaviours and interactions, but some factors dictate whether some should be restricted and mitigated to a large extent.

  • Create New...